According to some historians, Atto Adalberto, great-grandfather of Matilde of Canossa, started construction of the castle in 950, according to others it was erected by means of Bonifacio of Canossa, Matilde's father.
Around 1070 Bonifacio canossa, Duke and Marquee of Tuscany, conceded to the church of Reggio the "Castellum de Rosena" as compensation for the properties received in emphyteusis.
In 1300 the Da Correggio family took hold of the Rossena Castle and except for brief interruptions, kept it ‘til 1612.
That fort and the tower were subjected to damages caused by the troops of the Ferrara Duke and due to the explosion of the powder warehouse.
The investure of the Da Coregio ceased in 1613 and the feud passed on to Ranuccio Farnese, signore of Parma.
From this time the castle became an important part of the Dukedom of Parma and Piacenza until 1847 when, upon the death of the Duchess Maria Luigia, the castle was united to the Dukedom of Modena and Reggio.
In 1979 the church, already proprietor of the castle, ceded it to the Superior Institute of Matildic Studies as its academic seat for the summers.
The castle, which was restored in 1999, can also be visited inside where some interesting furnishings are conserved.
The beat round and the place where the cisterns were kept can also be visited.
Accompanied visits through the rooms of the castle are also possible.
On clear days, walking along the communication trench you can enjoy splendid scenery.